Pedagogical insights on teaching literary texts A university perspective
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العدد 14 جوان 2011 N°14 Juin 2011

Pedagogical insights on teaching literary texts A university perspective

Said KESKES / Abdelaziz BOUSBAI
  • Auteurs
  • Texte intégral

Research in the field of teaching/ learning actually emphasizes the great importance of the reading skill in Foreign Language classes, especially in literature course (Ghosen 2002, Widdowson 1984, Lazer 1993, Carter and Long 1991). Most of university literature teachers in Ouargla and Biskra lack the necessary requirements for efficient and successful achievement of reading instruction in general and literary reading instruction in particular (Bousbai, 1995). In this paper we shall suggest some key pedagogical implications to help university teachers prepare successful and efficient literary reading course in order to ensure the best teaching conditions about literary text comprehension and processing .

1. Introduction

As assumed by theorists literary reading is regarded as a difficult performance in a foreign language, because of its archaic words, chaotic syntax and mostly its deviation from ordinary language. Since the knowledge of norms of correct language is not sufficient for students to understand and interpret the various literary genres, students as well as learners need to know the major notions of the reading process also the methods and techniques used in reading and interpreting literary texts.

. Educational Context of Teaching Reading

The process of reading actually is a very loose and complex one. Reading takes place anywhere and at anytime. People read Sign-posts, diaries, notices, newspapers, adverts, etc. This could be a mere arbitrary and non-systematic process which has to be distinguished from formal reading that takes place in educational situation. Davies et al (1974:155) points out that: “In any educational situation there are three factors the student, the teacher, and the materials. In such a situation, because learning is taking place, there is the fourth factor, time”

We notice that reading in educational context and situations should entail learning. If learning does not take place, the process of reading would be viewed as recognizing shapes or as it is called by Broughton (1981) “barking on print”. Widdowson also affirms that there are four factors to be considered in any educational context of reading: the student, the teacher, the materials, and time allotment.

The Student: the Reader

The student or reader is the one who has to pass through a number of stages in order to enable him to become a proficient reader with the ability to recognize the written characters and for what they stand for.

The first stage for the reader consists of three fundamental skills. First the awareness of the task to distinguish it from other tasks, i.e., reading is not drawing or writing. Second, relating oral language to the printed page. This is what Broughton (1977) called phonic method or learning by look and say. Third is the ability to decode the written symbols which entails the ability to connect the symbols to what they stand for. At This initial stage, called recognition leads to stage two that is of structuring. At this stage the student should be devoted to combine the symbols to make larger structures this includes words, sentences, phrases, etc. The 3rd stage which is interpretation is mostly intellectual. It provides the reader with abilities to correlate the elements of the two former stages to forge meaning which the words symbolize. Davies et al (1974) related these three stages to three linguistic levels, recognition to the phonological level of language, structuring to the syntax and interpreting to the semantic.

Davies (ibid) however asserts that the three stages are not necessarily sequential. The learner- reader- does not pass from stage to another through learning and then accomplishing a stage. He actually goes forward and then comes back whenever necessary. The three stages are interrelated and overlapped.

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2.2. Teaching: Instructing

Teaching is the second formal factor in the process of reading. Davies (ibid) considered three stages of teaching reading: Initial, Intermediate and advanced. Initial teaching of reading must cope with all the three stages of the student in which recognition stands the most important one. Intermediate teaching should concentrate mostly on the structuring stage that deals with words, phrases and sentences. Moving to interpreting stage, however whenever possible at this stage is possible. Advanced teaching of reading should be centred on the interpreting stage that is to focus teaching on the semantic level of language. It is obvious that though teaching of reading passes through three stages, they cannot be taught respectively, chained and sequenced. Each time one need to resort to a corresponding stage to solve the problem posed at its level.

2.3 Materials: the Reading Text

Materials are mainly designed to match the two factors, student and teaching. According to Davis, and Widdowson (1974), Materials fall under three types: Literacy materials, comprehension (a), and comprehension (b). Literacy materials are designed mainly for initial teaching at the recognition stage. They however can serve some structuring and some interpreting when necessary. Comprehension (a) materials are intended to intermediate teaching at the corresponding, structuring stage. Comprehension (b) materials are targeted to advanced teaching at the corresponding interpretation stage. As far as content is concerned, Davies et al (1974) subdivided materials into three types: very familiar, familiar and unfamiliar. Very familiar Materials correspond to recognition stage and initial teaching. This includes forms from the student spoken language environment such as home, family, street Peers, etc. Familiar Materials correspond to structuring stage. It has to deal with experiences that are new, like school environment or items that are available only through the written Language like stories and arithmetic. Unfamiliar materials cover those which are read slowly with uncertain comprehension and may need expert help to be understood like legal documents, contracts or reading matter of some professions.

2.4 Time

Time obviously is the temporal period during which a stage has to be fully covered. Thus the recognition stage will necessitate a period of time in accordance with the teaching and Materials.

Time allotted to stage one would differ to time allotted to stage two and three. This will be dependent on the nature of the stage, the kind and amount of teaching and Materials involved as shown in the figure blow

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(Davies and Widdowson, 1974 155).

Factors of Educational Reading

3. Principles of Teaching Reading

The results obtained from two questionnaires, teachers’ discussions, and students’ interview-- in two Algerian universities (2003-2006)- the university of Ouargla and the university of Biskra—reveal that reading any text seems a very challenging and in some cases very boring activity. Harmer (2001) explained this by the noticeable unawareness and ignorance of the principles behind the teaching of the task on the part of teachers. Thus, he states six main principles of teaching reading so that the task would be much interesting and efficient.

First, Harmer (ibid) stipulates that reading should be an active skill. Students thus should interact with the text in a dialogue-like way. They have to understand what the words mean and get the ideas in mind. These ideas eventually should enhance the learner’s knowledge and have to reinforce his productive skills once he is involved in writing or speaking situations.

Second, he considers engagements with the text, i.e., students who are not interested in what they are reading are actually less likely either to understand the text or to cope with the assigned tasks and activities about it. Also, he stresses language-context and prediction. This implies that reading texts should enable learners to get knowledge about how language functions and how articles, pronouns and tenses are used, yet for literary texts the meaning of text must be highly considered. Students therefore should be allowed to respond to the text through giving them chance to express their feelings and opinions towards the topics presented in the text. As for prediction, it is very important for readers to have a look at the content before they read. Thus, book covers, photographs, the author’s life, the setting and headlines give the readers a hint at what the text is about before starting to read. Harmer (2001 70) points out “The moment we get this hint the book cover, the head-lines, the word processed page our brain starts predicting what we are going to read”. Hence, teachers should give students hints about the text through brainstorming key ideas, concepts, and any relevant information in order to enable them predict what is coming, this in turn, will make them more and more engaged readers.on Advanced Comprehension (b)

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Moreover, he insists on the role of task and exploitability. This entails choosing good and appropriate tasks to the text once it has been carefully chosen. If, for instance, the text does not exhibit some considerable figures and images, the teacher has to avoid asking questions about figurative language and exploit it for other literary features that may be explicitly stated in the text. Thus the teacher should avoid asking uninteresting and irrelevant questions about a highly valuable text, for, that could undermine it. As far as exploitability is concerned, teachers have to integrate varied tasks and should assign the reading text in some class parts and sequences. Some for discussing the topic matter of the text, some for figurative language, and some others for dealing with language study, so that the text would be fully exploited.

4. Types of Reading Comprehension Questions

Davies and Widdowson (1974:168) consider four categories of comprehension questions: Direct reference, inference, supposition and evaluation.

4.1. Direct Reference Questions

This type of questions is generally asked to make the reader recover or find information directly from a reading passage. Davies and Widdowson (ibid) clarify “...here are questions which only require of the reader that he recovers information directly from the text.” This is almost an automatic procedure, since all the reader has to do is to refer to a part of the text to which the questions asked explicitly direct him so that he can have access to explicit ideas or information in the text. In fact, this kind of questions has nothing to do with the whole comprehension of the text. Davies and Widdowson (ibid 169) assume that “Direct reference questions of this kind, then relate to sentences and not to the use to which sentences are put to communicate information” The reader therefore has just to understand the questions and look in the text to the word, sentence phrase or expression that corresponds to it.

4.2. Inference Questions

If the direct reference question takes the sentence as its limit, the inference question is concerned with the relationship between sentences and how they are juxtaposed together in a reading text. Davies and Widdowson (ibid) claim that (The inference question relates items in the text with other items in the text). Inference questions also seek to recover information of items in the text in relation with other items and not separately. Here the reader must understand the pronouns and linkers that are used to relate sentences with each other to detect information which are

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generally recovered through a good interpretation of how many items in the text are connected to convey information as argued by Davies (1974:170): “Inference questions may require the reader to relate two items of language in juxtaposition or two items which are widely separate from each other in the text” On the whole, the aim of inference questions should be targeted to develop in the reader an awareness of how language items are related in the text, so that he would be able to use an inferential strategy when reading.

4.3. Supposition Question

Supposition questions are those which direct the reader to relate the text to a wider situation of communication. Thus, they tend to check what the reader supposes when coping with the language items of the text. Davies and Widdowson (1974:174) assert that “They tend to get the reader to make suppositions of what exactly is intended by certain phrases and thus sends him outside the text, to the writer, or his own knowledge of the world.” In other words, writers do not always say fully and explicitly what they actually mean through the written words. Here comes the role of supposition questions through which the reader has to supply what is left to be understood either from his own knowledge or from the knowledge of the conventions of communication.

A foreign learner, however often finds difficulties in bringing supposed knowledge of this kind, because in most cases, the process is culture dependent, the thing which does not allow the reader to understand fully what is presented by the writer, solely because he does not share the same culture with the writer.

4.4. Evaluation Questions

This kind of questions is generally intended for students who are supposed to have acquired a high level and manipulation of the language. Davies and Widdowson (1974 175) affirm that “It typically requires the reader to assess the value of the reading passage and the effectiveness of the way the information in it has been organized and expressed […] they lead on to literary appreciation.”

It is clear enough that evaluation questions are specifically assigned to investigate language items in a literary text and also can provide a good way of linking the teaching of language and the teaching of literature. The overall aim of such kind of questions, if properly formulated is to enhance the student’s literary criticism and assessment of literary texts.

5. Motivating Learners to Read

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Motivation is a key factor that determines the rate and success of language learning and attainment, Ellis et al (1991:21) points out that “Without sufficient motivation, even individuals with the best abilities cannot accomplish long-term goals.” So, we cannot ignore the fact that learning cannot happen without motivating learners, even with those with considerable abilities. Ellis (ibid) states the following basic motivational conditions to motivate students read and enjoy authentic texts.

Inform the Learners

The teacher should tell his students why they are asked to read an authentic text: the teacher explains the benefits and goals to them. For instance, authentic texts expose the students to the richness of real English and will develop language awareness, language competence and vocabulary assimilation. Authentic text also will be different to their regular materials and activities and will provide variety. It will develop knowledge of the culture of the target language. Most importantly is to tell them that they can read the text and they will enjoy it.

5.2. Involve Learners in Text Selection

The teacher can give a brief description of each story if he is teaching short stories, he also can organize a class vote for the one students like best. Ellis (1991:2) « Being involved in such decision making, will give pupils a sense of ownership and responsibility » It is certain that much of successful reading is affected by the way the subject matter relates to the students’ existing cultural and general knowledge and to the subject matter of the text being read.

5.3. Making a Shift to Authentic Reading

The teacher should prepare learners to make the shift from teacher-guided study of guided short texts to authentic texts which include literary texts. Students must be told that they should use all available clues from the language, the context and the illustrations and to develop and use strategies to deal with any difficulty.

5.4. Entry and Pre-Reading Stimuli

Entry could be an illustration, expression a paragraph or even an extract to be looked at and read in class by the teacher before the actual reading of the whole story .This might give a flavour of the work and arouse interest and motivation. Since it is a starting point, the teacher has to be careful in choosing the most efficient, stimulating and appropriate patterns in order to gain the students involvement in the story and ensure a full reading of the

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whole work. Providing pre-reading stimuli on the other hand includes previewing the title and the cover illustration, the back cover, information about the author, glancing at table of contents or chapter headings, and looking the layout, print size and any useful illustrations. This will help the students exploit all elements laid out in the story and make them with what the students already know in order to facilitate making prediction and exceptions.

As an ultimate outcome of reading, the teacher has to direct his students at a stimulating outcome. This includes acting out a play, producing a poster, a role-play, writing a summary or an essay, a letter, a book review, directing a T.V display, producing a written report or a research paper, etc. It is conceived that if students know that reading is leading towards something concrete and relevant, they will invest the necessary effort to assimilate and understand the reading passage.

6. Selecting a Text for Reading

Selecting a text or a passage for class reading seems to be one of the more complex tasks for foreign language teachers. Day (1994: 20) states that : Since the focus of the EFL reading class should be on some aspect of reading, the selection of an appropriate reading passage is critical. If the passage chosen is appropriate for whatever reason, the chances of success for that particular lesson are substantially lessened.

It is certain that the success or failure of the reading lesson is practically dependent on the choice of the reading text. Teachers, thus has to take into account the Importance of selecting materials to be read in order to suit the needs of their classes and to guarantee successful reading course. Day (1994) states six factors in selecting any reading passage:1) interest,2) exploitability,3) readability,4) discourse and topic,5) length of text and appearance 6) political and cultural appropriateness.

6.1. Interest

Interest is the most important factor in the selection of a reading passage, because of its direct relation to motivation. Nuttall (1982:30) recommends that the reading passage should: “1)tell the student things they don’t already know; (2) introduce them to new and relevant ideas; make them think about things they haven’t thought about before; (3) help them to understand the way other people feel or think; (4) make them want to read for themselves.” It is assumed that if the reading text dos not supply a reasonable amount of ideas and new information, motivation is likely to be hindered, thus, teachers should bear in mind that without motivation, it will be difficult or impossible for learners to read and assimilate any text either

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in class or outside the classroom. Interest also entails materials self- selected by the learners.

6.2. Exploitability and Readability

Exploitability is considerably related to the objectives set by the teacher for the reading passage. Nuttal (1982: 30) supposes this question in order to check the exploitability of a passage: Will the passage allow the teacher to accomplish the objectives of reading lesson? Exploitability then is directly linked to activities and exercises assigned with the text to fulfill certain objectives. For instance, if the objective of the reading passage is to discover the tone of the story, the teacher has to assign questions that have to help learners discover the tone to the full. The reading passage also should embody the necessary elements and cues to help answering the questions and accomplishing the objective of the course.

Readability of the text is conceived as one of the most important considerations in the selection of a reading passage, Carrel (1987:21) distinguishes the following elements: 1) lexical and background knowledge, 2) Syntactic appropriateness sand organization.

6.2.1. Lexical and Background Knowledge:

Day (1994:21) affirms that as the number of unknown lexical items in a reading passages increases, the more difficult it becomes. Nuttall (1982:26) recommends that in an intensive reading lesson new lexical items should be less than three percent of the whole, because learners cannot respond completely to unknown items. Lexical items generally include words, idioms, and phrases. The teacher therefore should take info account the obstacles that might be caused by the large quantity of unknown lexical items in the reading passage.

As for background knowledge, the teacher should make sure that the subject matter or the topic of the reading passage is known or familiar to their students, otherwise it will be rejected by the students. Research has shown that the more the students are familiar to a topic the better comprehension and assimilation will be( Harmer:2001). One way of treating the problem is to select more than one passage and students are given the opportunity to choose the mot familiar to them.

6.2.2. Syntactic Appropriateness and Organization

Day (1994:24) assumes that if a reading passage contains grammatical structures that students do not know, they might have a hard time reading it, or might never comprehend it. To overcome this problem, the teacher can

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ask the students to scan the text and underline syntactic constructions that are new or difficult. By analyzing the results the teacher will be able to determine the linguistic weaknesses of his students. The teacher should also examine a text carefully to see how it is organized. Day (1994:25) refers to organization as rhetorical and the clarity of the organization. Readers who can recognize the rhetorical organization of the text are likely to better comprehend it.

Discourse and Topic

Discourse includes the arrangement of topics and considerations of cohesiveness and coherence in a reading passage (Day1994:25). Teachers then should be aware whether their learners can handle the presentation of ideas and arguments in the passage and whether the cohesion markers and transition devices are at the level of the readers or not. The topic of a reading passage is a very important factor to consider. Krashen (1981) calls for ‘narrow reading’, this means reading more in depth on a subject than reading superficially on several subjects. It is recommended, thus that teachers have to explore a very limited number of topics or themes during a reading course, because this would facilitate comprehension and help readers build strong and deep background information about the topic.

6.4. Length of Passage and Appearance

Day (1994 25) Says, ‘if students are unable to finish the reading passage the lesson is not successful’. The teacher then should consider the importance of the reading passage length. It is argued that students feel that they are poor readers when they are unable to finish the reading passage. The length of the text however is dependent on the lesson. If the lesson focuses on skimming general ideas, the teacher could assign a lengthy text. If the focus of the lesson is on main ideas, shorter texts will be much more appropriate and effective.

Appearance of the reading passage includes layout and print and type size. The teacher should examine the layout of the text, this entails whether the text contains pictures or other non-textual information; or if the lines and paragraphs are numbered and the legibility of the text. Type and font are very important factors for either beginner or advanced readers. Large types can aid in the initial stages of reading, but it can hinder the advanced reader’s ability to read. The font should also be clear and attractive in order to foster the reader’s reading speed.

6.5. Political and Cultural Appropriateness

In some situations the political and cultural content of a reading passage

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is a very critical issue. Teachers should pay too much attention in choosing texts in which political and cultural topics are discussed. Also, they should not censor the text to reflect personal political beliefs and cultural conventions. The problem becomes more serious for expatriate teachers and emigrant learners who may feel certain prejudice and alienation when dealing with some topics which exhibit different views, opinions, and controversy.

7. The Major Types of Reading

It is assumed that second language students main objectives of reading texts is to improve the acquisition of the language learned and also to have access to its mental and cultural as well as artistic properties. To do this, students most of the time process texts in the same way. Depending on the purpose(s) of reading teachers have to provide their students with varied and different types of reading each of which will be used in the appropriate time. These types consist mainly of skimming, scanning, intensive reading and extensive reading. Harmer (2001 201) points out that “The process we go through when reading a novel or listening to a poem are likely to be different from those we use when we are looking for some one’s number in a telephone directory”.

Different reading types then are used by students to fit their objectives and purposes of reading a text. It is also important to recognise that the types of reading can be used by students to facilitate learning, and comprehension. All that will depend on the purpose of reading a text. If the purpose of reading is to get an overall view of the text, skimming techniques would be necessary and adequate. Conversely if the purpose of reading is to get specific ideas from the text, the teacher should opt for scanning techniques.

7.1. Skimming

Skimming is used to quickly identify the main ideas of a text. Students often skim when they have lots of material to read in a limited amount of time. Harmer (2001 202) points out that “A term commonly used in discussions about reading is skimming which means running your eyes over a text to get a quick idea of the gist of a test” Good readers actually understand the gist of the text without worrying too much about detail. Reading for gist or general comprehension means not stopping for every word and analyzing every idea. Thus, teachers should encourage students to use skimming techniques to have a quick glance at the text before plunging into it seeking specific information and details. Skimming techniques include reading the first and the last paragraphs, using heading, summaries and organizers, titles, subtitles subheadings and illustrations.

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7.2. Scanning

Scanning as Harmer (ibid) labelled, reading for specific information, implies searching for key words or key ideas in a reading text. In most cases, the reader knows what he is looking for, the thing which will make him concentrating merely on relevant items in the text. Harmer (2001:202) states that “In contrast to reading and listening for gist, we frequently go to written and spoken text because we want specific details. In discussions about reading this skill is frequently referred to as scanning.”

In scanning, the reader is interested in particular items in a reading text and most of the irrelevant items are ignored. Scanning is also used when one finds a resource to determine whether it will answer some questions in his mind. Scanning techniques include looking for the author’s use of organizers such as numbers, letters, steps or the words, first, second or next. Also, words that are in bold faced italics or different size, style or colour, and common names.

7.3. Intensive Reading

Intensive reading is basically a study technique which aims at reading a high degree of comprehension and retention over a long period of time. Zhenyu (1997 40) states that “Intensive reading as its name suggests, requires students to read a passage (often called a text) very carefully and in great detail.”

In an intensive reading class, students are expected to go through the text slowly, explaining key words and phrases and analyzing grammatical structures whenever necessary. The teacher has to encourage his students to read as much and as fast as they can often aided by study questions so that they will be able to grasp the main ideas of what they are reading. Moreover, the students are encouraged to give their own interpretations of the text; this will entail critical reading as explained by Zhenyu (1997: 42):

Learners are now in a position to devote part of their attention to the analysis of logical relation between sentences and paragraphs. While reading, students should learn to identify the main idea of each paragraph and to make a logical and reasonable judgment as to the writer’s intended message.

At the first stage of intensive reading, the overall aim of student’s reading activities and tasks is to be able to decipher the message conveyed through words, phrases, and sentences that are syntactically arranged and juxtaposed. As students progress with these basic elements of the text, they enter a more sophisticated stage that is of analysis and interpretation.

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Intensive reading, thus, should lead students to an ultimate objective, that is to enable them to look for meaning beyond the author’s own word. This kind of processing is generally called critical reading.

It is assumed that intensive reading course starts with pre-reading tasks and questions to focus students’ attention on the main ideas in the text. This involves reading for gist in other words skimming. More than this, the students are supposed to read closely to find only the information necessary to answer specific questions. Thus the teacher has to opt for scanning.

On the whole, Intensive reading is meant to encourage students to reach a level of comprehension and retention by associating skimming and scanning activities which, in turn, should foster the students’ interpretive ability to the reading text. For applying intensive reading programmes, SQ3R can be a very useful strategy to help students follow a step by step method in order to reach high degree of assimilation and retention of key ideas and messages conveyed by authors.

7.4. Extensive Reading

Generally speaking, to read extensively means to read widely and in quantity. In the context of foreign language teaching, applied linguists such as Palmer (1968) gave extensive reading a special meaning. Palmer chooses the term in a way to distinguish it from intensive reading. If intensive reading refers to the careful reading of shorter texts with the goal of complete and detailed understanding, extensive reading, in contrast, is associated with large amounts with the aim of getting an overall understanding, extracting meaning mainly experiencing reading as a sustained and pleasurable task. Hedge (2000:202) suggests five fundamental characteristics for extensive reading programme. 1)reading large amounts(quantities)of material, 2)reading consistently over time on a frequent and regular basis,3)reading longer texts of all types, 4)reading for general meaning, and 5)reading longer texts during class time as well as engaging in individual and independent reading at home ideally of self-selected material. Hedge (2000) believes that through extensive reading programmes, learners can gain substantial reading practice and develop a taste for foreign language reading, the thing which would make them independent fluent readers.

In addition, extensive reading increases immensely the learners’ exposure to the target language as Hafiz and Tudor (1989: 5) argue that:

The pedagogical value attributed to extensive reading is based on the assumption that exposing learners to large quantities of meaningful and interesting L2 material will, in the long run, produce a beneficial effect on

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the learner’s command of the L2.

This also shows that extensive reading has very substantial benefits. It can contribute greatly in increasing acquisition and manipulation of the target language. Teachers then need to distinguish clearly between intensive and extensive reading and reconsider the important role of extensive reading in the EFL programmes. Teachers thus have to encourage learners to read extensively through assigning some lengthy works for reading at home far away from the pressures of tests and exams. This could be achieved through applying first the USSR strategy in class and working with the principles and techniques of extensive reading programmes. Theorists, Palmer (1968), Hafiz and Tudor (1989), Krashen (1981), however agree that the benefits of extensive reading do not come in the short time; more than this, it requires high degree of commitment on both sides the learner as well as the teacher.

8. Conclusion

In fact, reading comprehension is more than decoding shapes and figures as many teachers and learners think. Comprehension occurs when the reader knows what skills and strategies are necessary and appropriate for the type of text and understands how to apply them to accomplish the reading process and reach high degree of comprehension and retention. Accordingly, teachers need to reconsider the reading skill and understand how it works in advanced educational situations in order to distinguish it from reading which takes place in preliminary or non-educational environment. All in all, several approaches, methods and models have been developed by specialists to understand how the process of reading works in order to supply the appropriate pedagogies for teaching the skill.

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References

- Broughton, J., et al, 1981. Teaching English as a Foreign Language., Rout-ledge: Education Books, T.J. Press, B., Britain.

- Carter, R., Long, M. (1991). Teaching Literature.Longman.

- Carrel, P., L., 1987. Readability in ESL, Reading in a Foreign Language. In Day R., R..1994. Selecting a passage for EFL Reading class. Forum - .

- Davies, A., and Widdowson, H.,G. 1974 Reading And Writing. In Allen, J.,P.,B., and S., Pit, Corder (Eds), Techniques in Applied Linguistics: Oxford University Press.

- Day, R., R..1994. Selecting a Passage for EFL Reading class. Forum -

- Ghosen, I. 2002. Four Good Reasons for Using Literature in Primary School.ELT journal - .

- Hafiz, F., M., Tudor, I., 1989. Extensive Reading and the Development of Language Skills. 11.2003. ELTJ, 43, PP 4-13 in http//:itesj.org/articles/bell-reading.htm/

- Harmer, A., 2001, The Practice of English Language Teaching..Longman.

- Hedge T., 2000. Teaching and Learning in the Language Classroom. Oxford: oxford University Press.

- Ellis, G., Mc Rae, J., 1991. The extensive Reading Handbook for Secondary Teachers. Penguin.

- Krashen, S. 1981. The Case for Narrow Reading, in, Day, R., R., 1994, Selecting a Passage for EFL Reading Class.Forum - .

- Lazar G. 1993. Literature and Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

- Nuttall, C., 1982. Teaching Reading Skills in a Foreign Language. In Day, R., R., 1994, Selecting a passage for EFL Reading class. Forum - .

- Palmer, H., E., 1968. Principles of Language-Study. London: Oxford University Press. Widdowson.G.1984. Explorationa in Applied Linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

- Zhenyu, Z “Intensive Reading” Forum - .



Pour citer ce document

Said KESKES / Abdelaziz BOUSBAI, «Pedagogical insights on teaching literary texts A university perspective»

[En ligne] العدد 14 جوان 2011N°14 Juin 2011 ارشيف مجلة الآداب والعلوم الاجتماعيةArchive: Revue des Lettres et Sciences Sociales
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