Teachers’ and Students’ Perceptions towards the Use of Authentic Videos in Phonetic Classes of Second Year Students of English, University of Mustapha Benboulaid Batna 2
XML sitemap





































































advanced

Archive PDF

Informations pratiques



Teachers’ and Students’ Perceptions towards the Use of Authentic Videos in Phonetic Classes of Second Year Students of English, University of Mustapha Benboulaid Batna 2
p p 271-288
Date de réception : 2018-10-08 Date d’acceptation : 2019-09-24

Said Keskes / Hamza Ais
  • resume:Ar
  • resume
  • Abstract
  • Auteurs
  • Bibliographie

تحاول هذه الدراسة تقييم عملية دمج مقاطع الفيديوهات الأصلية في فصول السنة الثانية للصوتيات في جامعة باتنة 2. كما تهدف إلى استكشاف تصورات المعلمين ومواقف الطلاب اتجاه استخدام مقاطع الفيديوهات الأصلية والعوائق التي تحول دون استخدامها. بهدف جمع البيانات، وقد أجريت مقابلة مع المعلمين وتم استجواب الطلبة من خلال استبانة.  وكشفت الدراسة عن جهود الأساتذة ونواياهم الإيجابية، لكن افتقارهم إلى التدريب ونقص التكنولوجيات في قسم اللغة الإنجليزية أدى إلى عدم استخدام مقاطع الفيديوهات الأصلية لتدريس الصوتيات. وأيضًا أظهر الطلاب مواقف إيجابية ووعيًا اتجاه مقاطع الفيديوهات الأصلية. لذلك فمصممو المناهج مدعوون لإعادة النظر في أساليب تدريس الصوتيات

الكلمات المفاتيح: مقاطع الفيديوهات الأصلية، فصول الصوتيات، تصورات المعلمين، مواقف الطلاب، التكنولوجيات

La présente étude tente d’évaluer l’intégration des vidéos authentiques dans les classes de phonétiques de deuxième année licence à l’Université Batna 2. Elle vise à explorer à la fois la perception des enseignants de ces moyens et les attitudes des étudiants vis-à-vis de l’utilisation de ces vidéos authentiques en vue de mettre en exergue les obstacles liés à leur mise en œuvre. Pour la collecte des données, une entrevue avec les enseignants et un questionnaire destiné aux étudiants sont utilisés. L’étude révèle les intentions et les efforts positifs des enseignants, cependant le manque de formation de ces derniers et l’absence de moyens technologiques du dit département ont empêché l’utilisation de ces vidéos authentiques destinées à l’enseignement de la phonétique, et ce en dépit du fait que les étudiants se sont montrés très favorables envers l’usage des vidéos authentiques. À cet effet, Les concepteurs de méthodes d’enseignement de la phonétique sont invités à les reconsidérer à la lumière de ces résultats.

Mots clés : vidéos authentiques, cours de phonétique, perceptions des enseignants, attitudes des étudiants, les technologies

The present study attempts to evaluate the integration of authentic videos in second year phonetic classes at Batna 2University. It aims at exploring both teachers’ perceptions and students’ attitudes towards using authentic videos and the barriers against their implementation. For data collection, a teachersinterview and a studentsquestionnaire were employed. The study revealed teachers’ positive intentions  and efforts, however their  lack of training  and the lack of technologies at the English department resulted the absence of using authentic videos for teaching phonetics. Also, Students showed positive attitudes and awareness towards authentic videos. Syllabus designersare invited to reconsider methods of teaching phonetics.

Key words: Authentic videos, Phonetics classes, Teachers’ perceptions, Students’ attitudes, Technologies

Quelques mots à propos de :  Said Keskes

Université Mohamed Lamine Debaghine Sétif 2, keskaid@gmail.com

Quelques mots à propos de :  Hamza Ais

[1], Université Mostefa Benbouleaid Batna2h.ais@univ-batna2.dz
[1] Corresponding author

Introduction

English language learning is a complicated task .It is not like any other learning subject  and because of that, teaching should be offered more focus taking into consideration students’ current level, interests and needs, and appropriate learning atmosphere in order to take the learners from what they are to what they need to or  / and  should be, from their current level to the target level .To do so, recent studies and developments in technology have provided a variety of teaching methods and a healthy atmosphere for a good preparation of  English as a foreign language (EFL) students. The History of English language teaching (ELT) has witnessed different innovations moving from a traditional classroom to an updated one. Since learning a language requires the mastery of the four skills which are accordingly listening, speaking, reading, and writing as stated in the Common European Framework Council of Europe (2001), each language skill should be well developed. In EFL classes, phonetics is considered as one of the important modules and instructors are in a continuous attempt into making it effective. Phonetics is taught differently in different academic institutions. Phonetics is mainly composed of teaching productive and receptive skills and these two main components are given different values in teaching .While some universities focus on teaching the receptive skills, others value production over reception and the use of a specific learnt material which characterizes a good grasp of the language (Kohler, 2000). According to Kohler (2000), phonetics syllabus should be based on theoretical, methodological and empirical foundations of phonetics to cover both theoretical and methodological bases and practical skills. In the context of Algerian University, phonetics is one of the introductory modules which are mainly designed for developing communicative skills, both receptive and productive skills. It also aims at introducing the learners to the pronunciation norms of the target language, which means how language should be produced in its spoken form and developing the students’ receptive skills which are also required for any communicative activity. However, and sifting through the history of teaching phonetics in Algeria and although the 21st century has witnessed a great deal of innovations concerning teaching and learning strategies, phonetics seems to be taught traditionally. Recent studies on phonetics teaching call for the integration of using authentic videos (AVs) as a teaching method in EFL classes which offer more opportunities of practicing the target language. AVs have received a great deal of attention from educators and their effects have been positively reported in various areas of learning  (Rost, 1991). In addition, they are proved to be more useful than traditional lecture-based instructions (Brett, 1995), and the more students are exposed to AVs, the better their   production of the target language will be (Brett, 1997).In addition to the integration of AVs in teaching phonetics, Buck (2001) insists on using captions and subtitles to help students during listening activities, which in return help in enhancing their  listening comprehension. For developing the written and spoken form of the language, AVs are of paramount importance in allowing students to read  and listen simultaneously, and through developing listening and reading, students are  going  certainly to develop their speaking and writing production. Listening, as an important communicative skill requires cautious teaching methods. One effective teaching method is mainly based on   simplifying the provided text, giving pre-listening activities, and then offering visual support for the listening activity ( Baltova , 1995). Using AVs has a positive effect in developing listening skills ( Baltova, 1995). Despite the fact of the availability of Information and communication technologies (ICTs) and the progress which has been recently witnessed, Algerian Universities seem to lack the required technologies especially for teaching phonetics which in return requires listening activities. In this paper, our interest to report the current teaching strategies used  for teaching phonetics, teachers’ and  students’ perceptions towards the implementation of AVs in second year phonetic classes, and the barriers faced against this implementation.

1. Reviewing the Literature

1.1Introducing Phonetics

Phonetics is one of the main branches of linguistics which are concerned with the study of sound. It is concerned with, as Crystal (2008, p.363) stated : “the physical manifestation of language in sound waves and how they are produced, transmitted, and also provides methods for their description, classification, and transcription”. Thus, phonetics is interested in how the speakers produce sounds and how others receive them. In this Kelly (2000, p.09) adds: “.Phonetics deals with the physical reality of speech". That is, it is concerned with how we utter words in real life speeches, or once again, it is concerned with how spoken language is produced in reality.

1.2. Phonetics between Theory and Practice

Recently proved, there have been some descriptive studies concerning phonetics education in EFL classes. Teaching phonetics differs by different settings, which are related basically to students’ background, universities, and students’ needs. When some universities focus on the methodological   practical skills of phonetics, others focus on theory instead of practice.

Phonetics is taught differently based on different students’ goals and needs. Some students opt for phonetics as a fundamental module, while others may consider it less essential. In this respect, Kohler (2000) pointed that not all teaching contexts placed the same importance on specific areas of content. For example, some institutions placed less importance to practical phonetic skills to include discrimination, production, and transcription, while others consider them as important parts of the curriculum.

Teaching phonetics for EFL students has followed different teaching methods. These methods have developed by time and different schools and interests. As far as the presentation of items is concerned, traditional methods have followed certain approaches in teaching  phonetics when a great deal of time is devoted for  theory  and the description of  limited aspects  concerning the module of  phonetics (Gimson  & Roach, 2001).Phonetics  can be divided into segmental and supra-segmental features. First, the segmental level of phonetic description is introduced, and then suprasegmental features such as stress, rhythm and intonation are presented. All the attention is given to the first part of the program which focuses solely on the study of consonants and vowels which in return offers less chances of practice for supra-segmental features (Kohler, 2000). By doing so, students are going to know how to produce and distinguish the vocalic and consonantal contrasts of English, but because of lack of practice of the norms of speaking production, they are not going to speak the language as expected to be spoken. In this, kohler (2000) insisted on the importance of developing   curricula to meet both theory and practice .Any effective learning must be related to practice so tackling the theoretical part of phonetics is not sufficient. Hence, it should be based on both teaching the theoretical basics and   the practical ones

1.3Definition of Authentic Videos

AVS are those videos which are created by native speakers to serve different purposes other than educational purposes, though they can be precisely defined by Weyers (1999, p.339) as: “authentic television programming taped off-air and can be used with permission for educational purposes.  In addition to television programming, today there are numerous video clips available on video-hosting services, such as YouTube, TV shows, Broadcasts, and others instances” .AVs are  those  instruments  which are meant for everyday life   uses and needs. Those materials are available on Television and online services like YouTube channels which can be used for the sake of teaching. AVs play a crucial role  for today’s  generation  of students, those who perceive computer technology as  a necessity  to their everyday lives and communication ( Sokolik,2003) .In addition to the European framework   of reference (  Council of Europe, 2001)  which provides one illustration  for audio-visual aids for watching TV and films, other materials can be  incorporated to include sitcoms, Telenovelas, film excerpts, gags, documentary and educational films, television news, interviews and talk shows, sports shows, quizzes, short presentation video clips, and television advertisements (Sherman,2003). 

1.3.1 Authentic Audio-visual Aids in Communicative Language Teaching

The term ‘’authenticity’’ or ‘’authentic materials’’ can be dated back and fed by the communicative language teaching (CLT) in 1970 . During that time, AVs were introduced for communicative purposes and then used as means for language learning. Recently, CLT is one of the popular language teaching approaches. It emphasized the practical use of language in everyday communication. In this approach, the use of authentic materials is highly emphasized. Teachers are encouraged to use different audio-visual aids in the classroom. As the materials are mostly authentic, the classroom becomes interesting and enjoyable which creates a healthy atmosphere for learners. Usually, classroom activities are based on the activities that are related to real communication (Freeman,2000).

1.3.2 The Significance of Authentic Videos in EFL Learning and Teaching

1.3.2.1Authentic Videos and Contextual Learning

Authentic audiovisual materials are said to have a positive effect in language learning. As pointed by Allan (1986), AVs can be used to equip the classroom with a living language. By doing so, students are going to benefit from listening to real communication and language as naturally produced in addition to  their effect on vocabulary development and  the language skills of speaking (Seferoglu,2008)and writing(Čepon, 2011).Moreover, students are going to develop their intercultural awareness, communicative competence (Tschirner, 2001; Mekheimer, 2011 ) (Tabatabei & Gahorei 2011). AVs should be incorporated into EFL classes since they provide rich natural and contextualized language patterns of the target language (Weyers ,1999). This means that the input is learnt with relation to context. No one can deny the importance of audio-visual reception   in being a rich learning tools .Audio-visual reception is said to bring learners closer to learn the same way children learn in their early ages using listening abilities (Herron, York, Corrie, & Cole, 2006). 

1.3.2.2. Authentic Videos and Students’ Motivation

Motivation is one of the valued elements in language teaching and learning (Huczynski& Buchanan, 2004; Seferoglu, 2008; Mekheimer, 2011). The issue of affective factors should not be neglected in any learning process. Students with low ability of learning can benefit from AVs because of their significance in raising students’ motivation while learning as confirmed in one of Canning-Wilson studies (2000) on teaching with using videos. Scientifically proved, watching videos stimulates the emotional reactions of the individual and positively influences the learning process (Whiting &Granoff, 2010) .Textbook-based classes might be boring for learners, however using a variety of videos captures students’ attention ( Heffernan, 2005 ;  Xu & Guo, 2007).

1.3.2.3Authentic Videos and Students’ Autonomy

Autonomous learning or learner’s autonomy has been recently supported by many schools. By integrating AVs inside EFL classes, students are going to be trained and prepared for independent learning (Kuppens, 2010).This encourages students’ extensive use of AVs. This means that students’ exposure to videos becomes independent which in return raises their chances of practicing the target language outside the classroom. Besides, students can listen to different videos which help them in learning correct pronunciation .As for their practice, they can record their voices and compare them with the original voices produced in videos, and so that they can detect the mistakes they commit and correct them. This process is found to be a key for developing self learning.

1.3.2.4 Improving Listening Comprehension in Phonetics through Authentic Videos

Teaching phonetics aims at developing communicative skills to include both listening comprehension and speaking production. One way to do so, as recent studies claimed, is through integrating AVs due to their effective role in developing listening skill ad comprehension ( Weyers, 1999; Seferoglu, 2008; Wagner, 2012).

AVs are said to improve students’ listening comprehension because it has been proved that students who learned aurally and visually   develop better their listening than those who learned only aurally (Gardner, 2006 ; Diao, Sweller, and Chandler 2007; Jones& Plass,2007). Gardner (2007) emphasized the idea of   learners’ multiple intelligence which means that not all learners learn in the same way. That is, students own different learning styles and strategies.  Incorporating AVs provides learners with different learning options because they are characterized by triple connection of image (watching or visual learning), sound (listening or auditory learning), and text (both subtitles and body language). Besides, AVs introduce learners to a wide range of real life language experiences as they increase the chances of contextual learning (Sherman, 2003).

1.3.4 Language Laboratory is a Vehicle for Incorporating Authentic Videos

In order to use AVs for teaching phonetics, language laboratory is essential because it provides the teacher with the necessary tools and technological devices like computers, headphones, tape recorders and other instances.  It is language laboratory which can provide learners with necessary tasks for practice of the learnt materials. That is, language classrooms   are not as equipped as laboratories because classrooms are meant to teach subjects which require no listening tasks or technological tools such as written expression, history, literature and other modules. In this respect, Harmer (2001) insists on teaching phonetics in laboratories because it is the only way for students to listen to videos and learn phonetics the right way. Indeed, teaching with AVs in classrooms is quite impossible because the integration of AVs requires well equipped language laboratory which possesses necessary tools to support the process of learning.

02. The Study

2.1. Aims of the Study

The current study aims at:

Ø  Providing more evidence in favor of using AVs for teaching phonetics in the EFL context

Ø  Exploring teachers’   perceptions towards the integration of AVs in phonetics classes

Ø  Exploring students’ perceptions and attitudes towards adopting authentic videos in their learning of phonetics

Based on that, one should come to the following research questions:

2.2. Research Questions

1.                       How do teachers consider phonetics in EFL learning?

2.                       What are the materials used for teaching phonetics?

3.                       Are the materials used for teaching phonetics effective?

4.                       Are authentic videos used in phonetics classes?

5.                        How do EFL teachers consider the integration of authentic videos in phonetics classes?

6.                       What are the students’ attitudes towards adopting authentic videos in their learning of phonetics?

2.3Research Methodology

2.3.1Research Method

The current study is mainly exploratory in nature; it aims at exploring teachers’ perceptions, students’ attitudes towards the integration of AVs in phonetics classes and the barriers faced by teachers against this implementation.

In order to answer the research questions of this study, a teacher’s interview and a students’ questionnaire were   employed for data collection. The questionnaire is one of the common tools which are used to gather for data collection and describe the characteristics and opinions of students who are important to the study. It is the most appropriate tool which is conducted with large populations. Also, it can be easily administered as it can gather sufficient and relevant data. Interviews are usually conducted with small populations when sampling is no longer necessary, which is the case in our context of study.

2.3.2 Population and Sampling

The participants in this study were both teachers and Students.08 teachers of phonetics and 80 second year students of English from the whole population of 400 students at Mustapha Ben- Bouleaid Batna 2   University.  They were chosen randomly from the whole population. The aim behind addressing this population is the fact that they are said to have a certain linguistic knowledge and competence about learning a foreign language as they have studied phonetics for almost two years at university. It is worth mentioning that all the teachers were following the same syllabus for teaching phonetics to second year students.

2.3.3Data Collection Procedures

The current study was held at in the academic year 2017/2018 during the second semester. Teachers’ interview was conducted individually with teachers. It was conducted face to face with all participants. Each participant was given sufficient time to express his/ her point of view. All the teachers of phonetics both males and females at the department were interviewed. The interview is composed of 07 open-ended questions in which justifications, clarification and explanations are required for collecting necessary information regarding tools used for teaching phonetics, teachers’ perceptions towards using AVs in phonetics classes, and barriers faced with the use of AVs.

Students’ questionnaire was group- administered. Second year EFL students are brought together at a common place and time, and each respondent is asked to complete the questionnaire which is composed of eleven questions and a stage for further suggestions to express any further  points of views, if there are any, regarding phonetics learning. The respondents were given the questionnaire’s sheet for 15 minutes to complete answering the questionnaire.  Most of the items in the questionnaire were created by the researcher in order to meet aims of the study. The questionnaire is composed of two sections. The first section is about students’ information about phonetics learning while the second is about the students’ attitudes towards the use of AVs inside phonetic classes. The questionnaire was semi-structured in which both open and close- ended questions were used. This type is the most frequently applied technique in educational research. With this type, the participants responded to a set of questions on a given topic in which they were asked to justify their responses, and thus the researcher could collect more data.

2.3.4Data Analysis and Discussion of the Findings

The study produced both qualitative and quantitative data through both teachers’ interview   and students’ questionnaire. For analysis of the students’ questionnaire, quantitative results were counted and presented in tables. So both frequencies and percentages were calculated using the statistical packages for social sciences (SPSS) software version 22 in order to describe students’ perceptions about how they perceive and consider studying phonetics and the implementation of AVs as away to learning it.

Thematic method is a qualitative method which is usually used for interview analysis. This approach is used for identifying, analyzing, and reporting patterns (themes) within the data gathered from the interviewees in order to answer the   research questions (Braun and Clarke, 2006, p.97) .First, the data were prepared for analysis by transcribing, reducing them into themes following the process of coding. The aim behind this step was to identify and organize the data into similar categories for example “lack of technology sources” was classified under the category of “Barriers and obstacles”.  This process is found to be efficient time saving because it facilitates the identification of themes which are common in teachers’ responses. Once the classification of themes was completed, interpretation of the qualitative data was followed. The obtained data from both the interview and the questionnaire were analyzed on the basis of the following procedures

01.Data Organization

In this step, the data are ordered in tables and figures according to the nature of questions and items. The data were organized on the basis of similar answers. This step helps the researcher to find a way for summarizing the important information and meaningless data. 

02. Data Description

This step involves the process of reading the data depicted in the tables and figures through frequencies and percentages for the questionnaire and coding for the interview. In short, it is about explaining the data using words, expressions and statements instead of numbers and symbols. This step joins the previous steps with the subsequent steps and contributes to add some meaning to the data.

03. Linking the Data with the Research Questions and the Problem

In this step, and after the data were collected based on students and teachers responses, the researcher utilized them as sources for answering the research questions and the problem being studied. That is, this step is concerned with linking the obtained data with the research questions and the problem.

2.3.5. Analysis of the Teachers’ Interview

To answer the  aforementioned first five research questions (01, 02, 03, 04, and 05) , this interview was conducted with teachers of phonetics in order to explain how they teach phonetics as a module in EFL classes, how they consider implementing AVs in teaching phonetics, and what prevents them from this implementation.

Research question 01

             The first research questions deals with understanding teachers’ perspectives regarding phonetics in EFL learning. That is, to describe what value teachers give to this module in the context of our study.

a)               The Significance of Phonetics in EFL Learning

Phonetics is a crucial aspect in any language learning and EFL learning in particular .This is what has been argued by teachers of phonetics. It is an essential aspect that should be presented to EFL learners since it introduces them to the basics of accurate correct speech production. Besides, phonetics plays an important role in clarifying all the aspects and components of the spoken language since it familiarizes EFL learners with the foreign language sounds, vowels, consonants, and different variations that occur at each sound. Phonetics should be the heart of any language learning because it sheds light on the various spheres of how the language manifests in its spoken form. It is phonetics which enables learners to understand the language so that they can use it later in their speaking.

Research questions (02 & 03)

             Research question 02 is purposefully attempting to report the tools and teaching strategies used for teaching phonetics. Research question 03 attempts to understand teachers’ points of view about the effectiveness of traditional ways of teaching.

b)               Methods and Strategies Used for Teaching Phonetics

According teachers, phonetics is still taught traditionally with the use of the handouts. When the participants were asked about the tools used for teaching phonetics, all of them agreed on the use of written courses to include definitions of different terms concerning phonetics, introducing the segmental and the supra-segmental features in addition to transcription of words.

Since practice is considered an important part in the learning process, teachers were asked about the type of activities used for practicing upon the learnt materials.  The interviewees follow written activities for practice   which include multiple choice items, defining terms from the learnt materials and then words for transcription. The latter is considered the norm in practicing phonetics.

Research questions (04 & 05)

Research question 04 aims at exploring the use of AVs in phonetic classes. That is, our concern is to understand whether AVs are used by teachers or not. Research question 05 is concerned with describing teachers’ points of view about adopting AVs as a teaching strategy for enhancing phonetics learning. Throughout these questions, teachers provided us with insightful ideas and information about the use AVs in EFL classes and phonetics in particular. Teachers have suggested a set of ideas and practices for phonetic teaching and problems encountered concerning teaching phonetics with AVs.

C) The Use of Authentic Videos and Teachers Views about their Importance inside Phonetic Classes

AVs are absent inside phonetic classes. This is what all the participants assured in their responses. Though, they insisted on their importance in teaching EFL classes and phonetic in particular.

             It is extremely important to point the significance of AVs in teaching phonetics. Practically speaking, the use of such tools would enhance and even flourish the learners’ pronunciation because the students can see and hear from native sources and not only from the instructors. In addition, students can develop their listening skills and comprehension which in return help in developing their speaking performance. Besides, phonetics, according to the participants, should be taught in laboratories instead of usual classrooms because it is the language laboratory which provides the teacher with multimedia resources which makes the integration of AVs possible.

d) Barriers against the Implementation of Authentic videos in Phonetics Classes

Teachers face a great deal of issues and barriers regarding the implementation of AVs. An unequipped laboratory is one of the serious problems as long as they lack ICTs which stands against any integration of innovative teaching materials. Lack of technology sources and materials, mainly having a limited number of data shows, resulted a limited access to them. Another problem is “Crowded classes” or large size classes which resulted absence of suitable atmosphere of the integration of AVs. It is very hard for teachers to communicate, evaluate and provide feedback for all the students since laboratories are meant for teaching small classes. Also, being a researcher and a teacher is another problem which prevents the majority of teachers who are working on their research from a good preparation of effective lessons. Needless to say, insufficient allotted time and / or the teaching hours to the module of phonetics obliged instructors to concentrate theory over practice. 

f) Suggested Techniques and Tips for Effective Phonetics Learning

Practice is one major key for an effective learning and not only for learning phonetics because it is practice which prepares the individual for a good grasp of the language and life situations. In that, teachers suggest extending the teaching hours for the module of phonetics and devote a great deal of time to practice. By doing so, this will increase the chances for students to listen to extracts from native speakers as originality will help them in learning. Practice should include listening activities to develop listening comprehension and the norms of oral production. Motivation is said to be one of the important factors which may affect the learning environment negatively or positively. AVs, as teachers of phonetics explained, increase students’ motivation which helps them in their learning because they provide the learners with a variety of learning options.

2.3.6. Analysis of the Students’ Questionnaire

In order to answer the research question 06: What are the students’ attitudes towards adopting AVs in their learning of phonetics? The researcher calculated the frequencies and percentages of question 06 from the questionnaire. That is, any attempt of discussion of the items in the students’ questionnaire is a contribution to answer research question 06.

a. Students’ Attitudes towards Authentic Videos

As depicted in the following table (01), the participants were asked about their opinions and attitudes about authentic videos and whether they find them enjoyable or not. As it is indicated in the table, the majority of students (75%) find authentic videos enjoyable when 25% indicated the opposite.

The statistics above justify the extent to which students show positive attitudes towards AVs. The majority agreed that AVs make phonetics learning more effective and motivate them because they are offered more chances to listen and see at the same time, and this according to them, makes them entertain and learn simultaneously. Some students added saying that through these listening activities, they are offered more opportunities to listen to native speakers which familiarizes them with the norms of English spoken form. Others justified their responses saying:’’ some students like me “slow learners” cannot understand easily unless we see and listen to the information”.

A minority of students showed negative attitudes towards audio-visuals and this is probably due to their unawareness, lack of interest, or perhaps because of their learning styles do not meet audiovisual strategies. Here is the right time to point individual differences which shape the learning process. In fact, it is extremely important to take students’ different learning styles into consideration   in syllabus design.


Table.01Students attitudes towards Authentic Videos and Handouts

Item                                                                                                                                                                         Yes           No                    Total

Do you find authentic videos more enjoyable                                                                                          60             20                        80

than the use of handouts?

Percentage                                                                                                                                                              75%                25%              100%

Table designed by the researcher for analysis

b. Students’ Perceptions towards the Current (Traditional) Teaching Strategies

In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the current used tools in teaching phonetics (materials such as handouts and written activities), percentages and frequencies from item 09 in the questionnaire were calculated as it is indicated in the following table:

Table.02Students’ Attitudes towards the benefits of Handouts and Authentic Videos

Item                                                                                                                              a)  handouts                   b)authentic          Total

                                                                                                                                                                                    videos

Which one from the two materials do you  find                                                            00                                         80                          80

Beneficial? a) Handouts    b) Authentic Videos

Percentage                                                                                                                             00%                                  100%           100%

                                                                                                           Table designed by the researcher for analysis


As the results in table (02) show, the participants were asked about the benefits of the learning materials, between the handouts and AVs. All the students favor AVs instead of the handouts. As the results in the table above reveal, 100% of the students prefer AVs, whereas no one from the students opted for handouts.

The majority of students supported their responses and clarified that they do not benefit from the use of handouts asa learning tool such as written activities, memorization activities, and transcription of words. The results above prove students’ positive attitudes towards AVs. When the participants were asked to justify their responses, they pointed that the handout is tiring and boring, whereas AVs facilitate understanding and memorization, develop their listening skills, and learning correct pronunciation. One student noted:’’ by listening to authentic videos  AVs,  i can improve my listening skill and enhance my writing by learning correct spelling of the words…… especially with the use of subtitles, this would be much better and helpful…’’.Another student added:: “following traditional methods like handouts is a wasting of time because we need to learn correct pronunciation from native speakers not from the teachers “.In this respect, learning phonetics rules and transcription of words is not sufficient for an effective hold of it because students need to develop their listening skill and comprehension and these two cannot possibly be acquired without exposure to authentic videos. Having this at hand, the integration of (AVs) is necessary for teaching phonetics.

c. Students’ Use of Authentic Videos outside the Classroom

In order to explore students’ exposure to authentic videos outside the learning environment (university), and to evaluate their willing to learn phonetics, percentages and frequencies from item 04 in the questionnaire were calculated as it is indicated in the following table:


Table .03 Students’ Use of Authentic Videos outside the Classroom

Item                                                                                          students’ responses                          percentages

Entertainment                                                                         08                                                     7.5

learning phonetics                                                                              40                                                         50

Gathering information                                                                                                        05                                                        6.25

learning other subjects                                                                      25                                                         31.25

other purposes                                                                                  02                                                              2.5

Total                                                                                                    80                                                             100%

                                                                                                                                                      Table designed by the researcher for analysis


The participants were asked about the different purposes of using AVs .Among the purposes mentioned is phonetics learning in order to check how much they are interested to learn phonetics through authentic videos. As depicted from the table above, 50% of the participants use authentic videos for learning phonetics, whereas 31.25 % use them for learning other subjects when 7.5 % use them for entertainment, 6.25% gathering information, whereas only 2.5% use them for other purposes.

One may conclude how much the learners are open to the integration of technology during the process of language learning. This seems to be a positive sign from their side because usually in some of the learning contexts, teachers face problems of students’ negative attitudes towards technology due to ethical issues, but nowadays students’ interest of learning new languages led them to forget this issue of ethics since they focus on learning new languages and cultures. In this respect, one participant stated:” I always try to focus on the pronunciation of words when watching movies and videos in YouTube”. It is extremely significant to point that learners are interested in learning phonetics with the presence of different authentic audiovisual materials. This explains their positive attitudes and their willing to learn in non- traditional classroom.

d. Teaching Phonetics in Laboratories

The extent to which students are aware of the need for laboratories instead of classrooms for teaching phonetics justifies their knowledge about the module, its nature, and the skills which are supposed to be developed through it. Percentages from item 03 were counted as it appears in the following table:


Table.04 Teaching Phonetics in Laboratories

Item                                                                                                                                                        Yes              No              Total

Do you think that teaching phonetics should be in                                                                60               20               80

Laboratories instead of classrooms

Percentage                                                                                                                                           75%                   25%            100%

                                                                                                                        Table designed by the researcher for analysis

The students were asked about their opinions about teaching phonetics in laboratories instead of classrooms.75% of students are aware that phonetics should be taught in laboratories when 25% of the students think the opposite.

Students are aware of the nature of phonetics which is mainly based on developing listening capacities for a preparation of the speaking production because for students to develop their production, they should first develop their receptive skills .Language laboratories are important sources for EFL students because they can practice different areas of phonetics through different listening activities. Teaching students in laboratories makes the mission of teaching easier because the learners would be independent and the instructor would only guide them.

e. Easiness of Learning Phonetics between Authentic Videos and Handouts

This question was targeted to explore students’ attitudes towards authentic videos, percentages were calculated as it is shown in the following:

Table.05 Easiness of Authentic Videos for Learning Phonetics

Item                                                                                                                                   Yes            No            Total

Do you find authentic videos easier than                                                                  70                   10             80

Written activities for learning phonetics?

Percentage                                                                                                                    87.5%          12.5%         100%

Table designed by the researcher for analysis

    


As the results in the table above shown,  a majority of 87.5% of students think that learning phonetics with the integration of AVs is easier  than learning  with the use of handouts whereas a minority of  12.5% claimed the opposite.

From these results, students seem to believe  that written activities are less helpful  and take  a great deal of time in teaching them pronunciation and the norms of  speaking . AVs on the other hand, put them directly in the spoken form of the language because they listen to correct pronunciation of words as exactly produced   by native speakers .This facilitates the process of learning .In that, one student stated: “I want to learn correct pronunciation from videos ……I want to hear words pronounced by native speakers” .Another student added:”some words can only be learnt by natives themselves not from the teacher not from our classmates”. Another participant said: “learning phonetics with handouts makes it even tiring and hard to learn". This justifies how much students are attracted to the language produced by native speakers because words spoken by the teacher do not look exactly as the ones produced by natives. Students could be misled by their teachers to a wrong pronunciation which further affect their communication negatively. This is perhaps due to the fact that words being spelt are different from being pronounced as proved in studies held by Harmer (2001).

2.4. Discussion of the Findings

Phonetics as a module in EFL classes is important for language learning. Because of that, it requires a variety of innovative teaching strategies. Although teaching phonetics necessitates listening activities, AVs are absent inside phonetics classes. Besides, students find AVs helpful in understanding and learning correct pronunciation of words, contextual learning, and developing speaking skills. These findings are in a line with studies held by  Seferoglu (2008) , Weyers (1999).Needless to say, AVs can make the classroom interactive and hence facilitate the learning process.. As the 21 st century has witnessed innovative teaching methods and the development of technology, EFL learners have become attracted to updated teaching and learning strategies. The latter are found to meet learners’ demands and needs. What can be   noticed in students’ responses is the fact that they are aware of the nature of phonetics, its objectives and the skills which are supposed to be developed in this module. Indeed, students realize that practice in phonetics should be based on listening activities. Listening should be based on sounds and speeches created by native speakers. AVs are found to be easy tools and attractive sources because they make learners watch and listen simultaneously and explore the norms of the speaking whereas studying with handouts is boring and tiring .This finding is supported by (Heffernan,  2005 ;  Xu & Guo, 2007) who proved that  textbook-based classes might be boring for learners, however using a variety of videos captures students’ attention and motivates them to learn. Besides, students expressed the need for language laboratory because it is the only way which makes the use of AVs possible. This finding is supported by Harmer (2001) who insisted on teaching phonetics in laboratories because they offer more chances for practice of listening skills. The majority of students (50%) use AVs outside the classroom for learning and developing their language learning in on side and their listening skills from another side. This proves students’ exposure and readiness to learn phonetics with AVs .This finding is supported by many researchers like (Gardner, 2006  ; Diao, Sweller, and Chandler 2007; Jones& Plass,2007)  who proved that  students who learned aurally and visually   develop better their listening than those who learned only aurally. This means that AVs own a variety of leaning options which meet students’ different learning styles.

2.5. Recommendations

Based on the findings obtained from teachers’ interview and students’ questionnaire, we come to the following recommendations:

Ø      EFL Teachers must be offered more facilities for their teaching phonetics.

Ø      Curricula designers should encourage the use of AVs in phonetics courses, especially in the first two years of the academic career at university.

Ø      Teaching phonetics must be reconsidered, and hence should be taught in laboratories instead of classrooms.

Ø      Traditional teaching methods which are based on introducing the theoretical aspects is not sufficient for an effective learning, hence more practice must be the norm in teaching phonetics to include listening activities.

Ø      Syllabus designers must consider learning styles as one of the important individual differences in course design. Because of that, students must be placed at the beginning of courses according to their learning styles because this shapes their language acquisition.

Ø      Departments of English should be equipped with laboratories because some modules are based on listening activities and technology.

Ø      Teachers should receive training concerning new technologies and AVs’ use taking into consideration students’ needs and level, materials’ selection and appropriateness, and the skills which are supposed to be developed.

-   For extensive use of AVs, EFL learners are invited to use them as sources of learning because implementing these strategies inside the classroom is not sufficient.

-   As far as the integration of AVs is concerned, teachers should consider a set of criteria. Thus, the selection of teaching strategies is based on considering the learners needs, the nature of the course and the objectives of lesson.

-   Concerning the segmental level of phonetics and the supra-segmental features such as: stress, rhythm and intonation which are extremely crucial in learning correct pronunciation and oral production, AVs are the appropriate sources for practicing upon the learnt material.

Conclusion

To sum up, phonetics is an important module which is taught in EFL classes. It familiarizes the learner with language speech sounds, so that s/he will be able to use it in both   academic and life purposes. Thus, any failure in teaching phonetics means a failure in meeting learners’ demands and needs in phonetics. Despite the fact of this, phonetics was found to be taught traditionally following traditional methods which are based on learning some rules and practicing these learnt materials using written tasks. Students need teaching strategies which involve more opportunities of listening tasks. Therefore, updated methods of teaching phonetics should be the main concern. AVs are one of the updated methods for teaching phonetics because they offer the learners a great deal of listening to meet the nature of phonetics and its demands. Language laboratory is one of the important conditions for the implementation of AVs. It is an essential way for students to practice their listening skill and comprehension of the target language. As a matter of fact, and although teachers are open to the integration of AVs in phonetics classes, lack of laboratories and crowded classes are two main causes behind teaching phonetics in classrooms using written courses. Following traditional methods, teachers seem to prepare students only for the test (exams) forgetting their mission of developing students’ production and learning as whole. In the context of our study, it is not the responsibility of instructors solely, but also syllabus designers and administration to reconsider methods used for teaching phonetics to eliminate any problems that might face teachers and learners throughout teaching and learning of phonetics.


 

Allan, M .(1986). Teaching English with videoLongman: Avon English Language

 Curriculum  Guide (2004)

Baltova,I .1995 “The impact of video on the comprehension skills of core French students,

” Canadian Modern Language Review, vol. 50 , pp. 507-523

Braun, V. & Clarke V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative

Research in Psychology 3, pp.77-101. www.QualResearchPsych.com

Brett, P.(1995) , “Multimedia for listening comprehension: The design of a multimedia

-based resource for developing listening skills,” System, vol. 23, no. 1, , pp. 77-85.

Brett, P .(1997), “A comparative study of the effects of the use of multimedia on

listening comprehension,” System, vol. 25, nol. 1, , pp. 39-54.

Buck , G. (2001), Assessing listening, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,.

Čepon, S. (2011). Interlingual subtitling as a mode of facilitating incidental foreign

 language acquisition. English for Specific Purposes World, 11(33).

Availableat:http://www.espworld.info/Articles_33/Doc/Interlingual%20

subtitling Cepon.pdf (24 November 2013).

Council of Europe . (2001). Common European Framework of Reference for Languages:

Learning, Teaching, Assessment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

 Retrieved http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/linguistic/source/framework_en.pdf

Crystal, D. (2008). A Dictionary of Linguistics and  Phonetics. 6th edition. Oxford:

Blackwel  l Publishers

Diao Y, Sweller. J., and Chandler. P. A. (2007) .“The effect of written text on

                            comprehension of spoken English as a foreign language,”

American Journal of Psychology, vol. 120, no. 3, 2007, pp. 237-261.

Freeman, D. L. (2000).Techniques and principles in language teaching. New York:

                            Oxford  University Press.

Gardner, H. (2006), Multiple intelligences: New horizons, New York: Basic Books.

Gimson, &. Roach, P. (2001) English Phonetics and Phonology. Cambridge: CUP.

Harmer, J. (2001).The practice of English language teaching. England: Longman

Herron, C, York, H, Corrie, C. & Cole, S. P. (2006). A comparison study of the effects of a story-

                            based video instructional package versus a text-based instructional package

 in the intermediate- level foreign language classroom. CALICO Journal, 23(2), 281–307.

Heffernan, N .(2005) . “Watching movie trailers in the ESL Class,” The Internet TESL Journal,

vol. 9, no. 3. Retrieved from        http://iteslj.org/Lessons/Hefferman- MovieTrailers.html.

Huczynski, A. & Buchanan, D. (2004). Theory from fiction: a narrative process perspective

on the pedagogical use of feature film. Journal of Management Education, 28(6), 707–726.

Jones, L. and Plass, J .(2007). Supporting listening comprehension and vocabulary acquisition

with multimedia annotation,”, The Modern Language Journal, vol. 86, , pp. 546-561. 

Kelly, G. (2000) How to Teach Pronunciation, Longman: Longman Press

Kohler, K. J. (2000).The future of phonetics. JIPA 30, 1-24

Kuppens, A. H. (2010). Incidental foreign language acquisition from media exposure.

Learning, Media, and Technology, 35(1), 65–85.

Mekheimer, M. (2011). The impact of using videos on whole language learning in EFL context.

Arab World English Journal, 2(2), 5–39.

Rost, M.(1991) Listening in action, New York: Prentice Hall

Sokolik, M. (2003). Student perceptions of classroom technology. The CATESOL  Journal,

15(1), 43–50.

Sherman, J. (2003). Using Authentic Video in the Language Classroom. Cambridge: CUP.

Seferoglu, G. (2008). Using feature films in language classes. Educational Studies, 34(1), 1–9.

Tabatabaei, O. &Gahroei, F. R. (2011).  The contribution of movie clips to idiom

learning improvement of Iranian EFL learners. Theory and Practice in

Language Studies, 1(8), 990–1000.

Tschirner, E. (2001). Language acquisition in the classroom: the role of digital video.

Computer Assisted Language Learning, 14(3–4), 305–319.

Wagner, E. (2012). The effect of the use of video texts on ESL listening test-taker

performance. Language Testing, 27(4), 493–513.

Weyers, J. R. (1999). The effect of authentic videos  on communicative competence.

The Modern Language Journal, 83(3), 339–349.

Whiting, J. &Granoff, S. (2010). The effects of multimedia input on comprehension of  a short story.

TESL-EJ, 14(2), 1–10

Wilson, C. (2000). “Practical Aspects of Using Video in the in the Foreign language Classroom”,

 in The Internet TESL Journal. Vol. VI, No. 11. Available

at: http://iteslj.org/Articles/Canning-Video.html TESOL-SPAIN Newsletter 31, 5-8 2007

Xu and Guo, H. M. ( 2007). English through movies, Beijing, CHN: Beijing Institute of

 Technology Press.

Appendices

Appendix A:                      

Teachers Interview

 

01-To what extent do you consider teaching phonetics important in EFL classes?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

02-How do you deliver phonetics courses? Through: a) written courses

                                                                                       b) Audio courses

                                                                                       c) Both audio and written courses

                                                                                       d) Other techniques

03- The practice in phonetics classes includes: a) written activities

                                                                             b) Listening activities

                                                                             c) Both written and listening activities

                                                                             d) Other activities

04- As far as phonetics module is concerned, do you implement any authentic videos for teaching?

If yes how………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...

05- If no, what prevents you from this implementation?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

06- To what extent do you consider the importance of implementing authentic videos in teaching phonetics?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

07. In your opinion, what are the best techniques for students to improve their learning of phonetics?

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

                                                         Thank you for your cooperation!!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Appendix B:  

Students Questionnaire

This questionnaire is a part of an academic research. It aims at exploring “Students Attitudes towards the use of the authentic videos in Teaching Phonetics". You are kindly requested to answer the following Questions. Please, tick () the choice that corresponds to your answer and provide the necessary justifications and explanations to your responses. Thank you very much!

Section One: Phonetics Learning

01. Do you think that phonetics is difficult to learn?

Yes

No

I do not know

02. Do you think that phonetics should be taught in laboratories instead of the classrooms? Why?

Yes

No

Please explain!!.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

03. Do you think that authentic videos are important in language learning? Justify your answer!!!!

Yes

No

why!!?…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………..

04. What are the strategies you usually use to learn phonetics? ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

05. Do you think that using authentic videos is a good strategy for learning phonetics?

 Yes  

 No

 I do not know

why?…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………

Section two: Authentic Videos Use

06.I use authentic videos for: Please put them in order of importance (1- 5)

Ø      Entertainment 

Ø     Learning phonetics

Ø     Gathering Information 

Ø     learning other  subjects

Ø     Other purposes

07.Have you ever been asked by your teacher/ instructor to use authentic videos for learning phonetics at university? 

Yes       

 No  

08.Do you think that using authentic videos  are more enjoyable than the use of handouts?

Yes                   No                  please   explain!!!

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

09.Which one from the two materials do you find    beneficial?

 a) Handouts    b) Authentic Videos

Please explain!!

…………..……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

10.What are the problems that mostly faced in using authentic videos?

                       Problems of listening comprehension

                       Problems of catching up the words said by the speakers

                       Problems of not understanding different accents

                       You have weak / poor listening skills 

                       You have no difficulties

11. Do you find authentic videos easier than  written activities for learning phonetics?

If yes why?

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

If no Why?

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

Other problems!!! Please be specific

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

Further Suggestions

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

                                

 

     Thank you for your cooperation!!

Said Keskes / Hamza Ais, «Teachers’ and Students’ Perceptions towards the Use of Authentic Videos in Phonetic Classes of Second Year Students of English, University of Mustapha Benboulaid Batna 2»

[En ligne] مجلةالآداب والعلوم الاجتماعيةRevue des Lettres et Sciences Sociales العدد 03 مجلد 16-2019N°03 Vol 16- 2019
Papier : p p 271-288,
Date Publication Sur Papier : 2019-10-08,
Date Pulication Electronique : 2019-10-08,
mis a jour le : 10/10/2019,
URL : http://revues.univ-setif2.dz/revue/index.php?id=6190.